Posts Categorized: Mineral

Experimenting induced seismicity phenomena using Geophysical Imaging triaxial cell at RFDF

A preliminary report by M.H.B. Nasseri and S. Lui

Research objective: Research investigation on understanding of the triggered or induced seismicity have
recently been the focus of many investigators in relation to hydraulic fracturing practice associated with
the unconventional oil and gas production industry in North America. Such projects usually involve
recording and processing of seismic events using axillary bore holes equipped with seismological recording
devices near to the field of interest. Induced seismicity is in association with fluid-injection processes and
elevation of pore pressure affecting pre-existing stable/critically stressed fault systems causing instability
by increasing shear stress leading to fault plane slippage thus creating a man-made earthquake. We are
reporting a preliminary result on simulating the aforementioned phenomena on a saw cut Westerly
granite specimen with bore hole drilled to access the fault plane. The saw-cut fault plane makes an angel
of 30 degrees with respect to the axial stress and the long axis of the cylindrical specimen as shown below.

Figure 1. Shows the saw cut Westerly granite with a central Fluid-injection hole to access the fault plane Experimental approach

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

READ MORE: Download PDF with study results


3D-Permeability in Jointed Sandstone within True-triaxial Cell

The testing plan was for a study to evaluate the transport properties of the proposed sandstone specimens under steady state method to be tested within geophysical imaging true-triaxial testing set up at rock fracture dynamic facility, University of Toronto. This study was designed to measure the transport properties and seismic wave velocities of the tight jointed (β =0°, 15° and 30°) samples to be tested under a stress change of (Sv, SH, Sh) simulating various testing steps representing reservoir depletion in a very deep reservoir.

See PDF with Study Results


From between a rock and a hard place (for women) to an equitable and more profitable place for all: Why gender diversity in mining is vital to the strength and future of the industry

Mining’s “not so secret” secret
It is an accepted industry-wide truth: mining has a gender diversity issue.

The industry lags behind most other sectors in tackling this systemic problem with recent statistics showing women represent only 16 per cent of the Canadian mining workforce compared to 48 per cent of the overall Canadian workforce.

The challenge of building a gender-balanced workforce stretches from site to the boardroom. According to a 2016 PWC study, the mining industry has the lowest representation of women on boards of any other sector, including oil and gas, technology, and manufacturing. Additionally, out of the top 500 globally listed mining companies, only 8 per cent of executive officers in company leadership roles are women (Mining.com).

Whiffs of change
Between 2018 and 2019, mining companies such as Agnico Eagle, Barrick Gold and Newmont Goldcorp have started making strides in narrowing the gender gap. For example, in 2018, Agnico Eagle became an active participant in The International Women in Resources Mentorship Program (IWRMP), a collaboration between International Women in Mining, Women in Mining Canada and Metisphere. IWRMP connects senior global female mining leaders with mentees in a variety of occupations across the entire mining cycle. In early 2019 Barrick Gold began a certification process for gender equality at its Pueblo Viejo mine in the Dominican Republic. Newmont Goldcorp’s CEO, Gary Goldberg, pledged support for Paradigm for Parity, a global corporate initiative to achieve gender parity by 2030 and holding true to that commitment, Newmont most recently appointed three female executives after their merger with Goldcorp.  These are all important steps, however for systemic transformative change, these types of initiatives need to be happening industry wide and with clear accelerated targets to achieve parity and inclusivity.

It just makes business sense
It has been shown time and again that companies prioritizing diversity and inclusivity are 21 per cent more likely to deliver “above-average profitability” and greater long-term value with the key correlation linked to gender diverse executive teams (McKinsey).  Why might this be so? Mining companies prioritizing gender parity as a strategic objective possess a diversity of ideas, experiences, cognitive frameworks and expertise that becomes an advantage in a competitive market, e.g.  facing volatile commodity prices.  A diverse workforce is more adaptable and productive; delivering higher performance for shareholders and stakeholders (McKinsey).

Deloitte also revealed through their 2018 Global Human Capital Trends survey of mining companies, that diversity is correlated “to better performance and corporate decision-making” indicating that leaders today must prioritize corporate diversity and inclusion imperatives.

 CEO and President of Teck, Don Lindsay states, “An inclusive and diverse workforce can lead to improved health and safety performance, increased innovation and productivity, and better decision-making.”

Studies have shown that greater diversity at a company can lead to better financial performance, especially when seen at the board and senior management level (Shecter, Barbara, What’s a woman on the board worth to stock investors? About 300 bps, according to CIBC study. Financial Post, 2017). Underscoring what inclusivity delivers for better margins, a 2016 PWC study found a higher average profit margin overall (23 per cent) for mining companies with mixed gender boards, compared to the average net profit margin for the top 100 mining companies (20 per cent).

Building the Diversity Pipeline: Recruitment, retention and promotion
While the business case is clear: women in leadership is good for business – the challenge of retention reflected by the extremely  high attrition rate of mid-career female talent is a critical issue across the industry.

There have been great efforts by educational institutions like the Department of Civil and Mineral (our graduating class was 35 per cent female in 2019) and other initiatives like Vale’s Voisey’s Bay Underground Training Program (seeing 4 females of 10 incoming trainees) to attract females to the industry. However, even with increased female recruitment focus, systemic corporate barriers persist stifling women throughout the duration of their career and resulting in a ‘leaky pipeline’. This leak has been highlighted most recently through the #MeTooMining movement where  female mining professionals have come forward to voice their negative experiences on mine sites, in boardrooms and throughout the industry as well as their reasons for leaving the sector all together.

This pain point is an especially important one for an industry that requires maximum efficiency, resiliency and adaptability in order to survive and thrive. The loss of experience, competencies and decision-making skills residing in these women must be addressed with initiatives to tackle biased corporate culture.

Women face unique challenges in mining compared to their male counterparts, as a study concluded by Women in Mining Canada (Women in Mining Canada, Ramp-Up: A Study on the Status of Women in Canada’s Mining and Exploration Sector (Women in Mining Canada, February 2010). The study cited: work culture, lack of mentors, perception of their skills and work-life conflicts as some of the key barriers to female career advancement. In particular, fly-in fly-out mine sites were of concern for family planning and other life commitments the study found.

Where to start? Looking at the percentage of women at each phase of the career cycle is a productive and meaningful way for mining companies to measure the health of their workforce and identify where barriers and biases occur. Monitoring imbalances in gender pay gaps, gender-bias performance metrics, the ratio of eligible women versus promotion rates of women, or their odds of advancement compared to their male colleagues, are all ways mining companies can ensure their business operations are fully supporting and thus retaining women in the workplace.

Change comes from the top down
Transforming a culture requires commitment across an entire line of business; but mining company CEO’s dedicating efforts to this inclusivity imperative see the greatest results. Building a culture of inclusivity requires the active endorsement, sponsorship and amendment of business objectives by senior leadership.  Top executives must be the agent of change to reform the power structure and dissuade systematic unconscious bias.  Without this top-down culture shift, on-site employees will never substantively engage, and transformation will not take place. For this change, and its associated boost to company profits to happen in our lifetime, rather than at the current glacial rate of change, we need more women on boards and in leadership positions now.

 “Companies should require, not ask that executives promote, recruit and include women,” stated Cynthia Carrol the former CEO of Anglo America (2007-2013).

These concerns are gaining more traction with top mining leadership who are making both the ethical and business case for a dramatic culture shift.

Andrew Mackenzie, CEO, BHP says this about the gender parity goal at their Annual Meeting, “It will demand that we question our own biases when we make decisions, that we make our workplaces more flexible and that we challenge dated stereotypes about jobs in the resources industry.” Mr. Mackenzie recently said in an interview with the Sydney Herald, “It is about tapping “the best brains in the planet”, Mackenzie says, including younger people “who are at their most productive, their most inspirational, their most quick-thinking, their most quick-witted – we need to be attractive to them by having a modern approach to sexuality and race and inclusion. When they get here there should be absolutely no discrimination, and a sense that they can flourish.”

There had been unconscious bias in the industry and that women had been disadvantaged. In the company’s “most inclusive and diverse sites” performance is 15 per cent higher.

Around the world, countries are taking notice of the sizable deficit of female representation on boards. Though not strictly focusing on mining companies, the emphasis on gender parity through legislation associated with mandatory quotas or comply-explain regimes is sparking much debate.

While quotas can be helpful to provide measurable targets, there must be meaningful change for gender parity to take hold and transform a business. Women’s qualifications must hold equal weight to their male counterparts. The persistence of the ‘old boys network’, must make way for equitable appointments based on merits. With only 16 per cent representation in the overall workforce, women’s networks are limited, and male champions are needed to create dial-moving solutions.

The Lassonde Institute of Mining

As men, early in our career or later on in our career, we need to take every opportunity to come alongside our female colleges and support and advocate for them. We need to listen and champion for their efforts and realize it is everyone’s responsibility to make this industry welcoming to all. Having women in this sector makes us smarter and more resilient for a future where vital resources are critical.
Ian Pearce (Chair of the Board, New Gold; Director, Nexa Resources; Vice Chair, Outotec and Chair, MineSense Technologies).

Ian Pearce, an active industry advisor and champion for the Lassonde Institute, works alongside an all-women leadership team and first-ever woman director, Professor Lesley Warren, to develop a new vision for the 20-year old Institute.

Gender parity is not just seen at the L/I leadership level, but also in our top research pool of principal investigators. Over 50% of our L/I principle investigators are women. This feat, the likes of which other mining programs and institutes have not yet achieved, has been made possible by the catalyzing efforts of Dean Emerita Cristina Amon of the Faculty of Applied Science and Engineering at the University of Toronto. Her persistent championing efforts towards diversity, inclusivity and parity within the Faculty additionally supported by Department of Civil & Mineral Engineering’s chair, Professor Brent Sleep, have made this positive change possible at the Lassonde Institute.

The future of mining depends on diversity in mining
A diverse mining industry will mean a workforce that is flexible, adaptable and well prepared to tackle uncertainty. Canada’s mining sector could and should be global leaders in driving this transformative change. The facts tell us that in the process, they would gain significant competitive advantage and position themselves to reap massive rewards.

 

By Lesley Warren 

This article originally published in foundations magazine

Lesley Warren

 

Lesley Warren is the Director of the Lassonde Institute of Mining. She holds the Claudette-MacKay Lassonde Chair in Mineral Engineering.

The Lassonde Institute is continuing to expand with the addition of new Principal Investigators in emerging mining fields and new global initiatives launching this year 2019-20. Learn about our future events and updates by visiting lassondeinstitute.utoronto.ca/join-the-lassonde-institute-mailing-list to sign up for our community emails.


Alumnae from the west

Imperial Oil Duo

Imperial Oil sent two University of Toronto alumnae to host an information session on campus. We sat down for a chat with Karsmina Kam (Min 0T8), Mine Performance Team Lead and Joyee Pu (Min 1T4 + PEY), Senior Operations Analyst, who are both originally from the Toronto area and now reside in Calgary. The pair were at the St George Campus to host a meet and greet with engineering students on behalf of Imperial Oil/Kearl Oilsands. The company is looking for co-op and full-time employees from within the undergraduate and graduate students.

VISITING ALUMNAE (ALUMNI) — Joyee Pu (Min 1T4 + PEY), Senior Operations Anyalyst at Imperial Oil (blue shirt) and Karsmina Kam (Min 0T8), Miner Performance Team Lead at Imperial Oil (in pattern shirt) at the University of Toronto campus on Thursday, September 12, 2019. The duo visited the St George Campus to provide a meet and greet with students on behalf of Imperial Oil/Kearl Oilsands. The company is looking for co-op and full-time employees from within the undergraduate and graduate engineers.
PHOTO: Phill Snel, Department of Civil & Mineral Engineering/ U of T

 

So, you’re here at U of T looking to recruit students for the summer, or for short-term jobs, and also full time. All of the above?

Joyee  Yes, we’re looking for both co-op students and full time. We have positions that vary from four months to 16 months for the co-op students, and we’re also looking to hire new grads who want to join us after they graduate from university. For the co-op positions you can be an undergrad student, or a graduate student doing your masters.

 

For an undergraduate it’s a good opportunity for a PEY (Professional Experience Year), perhaps?

Joyee  Oh, yeah, for sure. I did a PEY with Imperial Oil. I loved it so much that I decided to go back as a full time new grad with Imperial Oil in July 2014 and moved to Calgary. My family is originally based in Ontario – Toronto.

 

And Karsmina?

Karsmina  I didn’t part take in PEY, however back in 2004 there was a collaboration between civil companies and the university. If you were selected you can do four month work terms during the summer with different companies. I worked for Lafarge and City of Mississauga for my work terms. On my last year a lot of mining companies were hosting information sessions and doing on site interviews.  I got hired as a full time through this recruitment process.

So you’ve both been in Calgary ever since?

Karsmina  No, I went to Fort McMurray first. I worked for a different company, Suncor in 2008, and then moved to Calgary with Imperial Oil in 2018.

 

Karsmina, did your experience and the education here at U of T provide the background you needed to obtain your current position?

Karsmina  Yes, University of Toronto graduates are sought after by employers. We were offered networking sessions with future employers at a very early stage. They offered the visibility, as well as a curriculum that meet the expertise  employers were looking for. The adjunct professors brought a good balance between practice and theory. The largest part of my education, that I use to this day, is what we learned in mineral economics. Understanding the financial analysis has helped me provide direction on business cases for my current employer.

 

Would you concur?

Joyee  The professors helped a great deal. In second year, I expressed my interest in gaining work experiences in the mining industry with Professor John Hadjigeorgiou and he was willing to give me an opportunity. He took me in as his research student for one summer and we worked on a pit wall stability project together. The experiences opened up many door for me in future years. Having that kind of relationship with the professor was great. Aside from the strong bond with professors, the education program at U of T also taught me how to think critically and work independently, which are critical skill sets required at work.

 

Would you change anything about how you approached school, or what you did here? Would you have done something differently knowing what you know now about the industry?

Joyee  Networking! I definitely encourage all the students to take advantage of the networking events (such as the one we are offering today) offered on campus to meet with others and get to know the industry a little bit earlier. It helps you build a relationship within the industry and get your foot in early.

 

Isn’t that ironic? Now you are holding the same type of events in order to attract students like your former self?  

Karsmina  I totally agree. I think being more involved is crucial. Assignments, midterms, and labs can keep you terribly busy. You may not always step out to be more involved in those extracurricular activities and networking – networking is big. I did go to CIM [Canadian Institute of Mining] lunches and other similar kind of events. They proved to be very beneficial. Through one of these events I had the opportunity to work at PDAC for two years.  Like a lot of things, it was advertised through the Student Services office and that’s how we knew where to go participate and network.

 

What about in terms of lifestyle? Would you have any advice for future students, or those who are currently starting their first year, what they should do to prepare themselves for the next four or five years, or if they should do a PEY?

Joyee  Extra curriculum would be great. Try to get involved in a variety of different organizations and try to take some lead positions in there, because it really gets you to start thinking like a leader early on.

Karsmina   Don’t give up on mining in your first two years. I know mining may not have been a lot of people’s first choice, but it is a very dynamic and interesting industry to be in.  The challenges and opportunities in mining are significant. Remember, if it’s not grown, it’s mined. Lastly, build relationships and good teamwork skills. The projects in the industries are complicated. Working cross functionally and with all sort of different personalities is important. Use the opportunities in completing group projects to practice these skills.

 

You’re probably on the cutting edge of helping to equalize some of the playing field in terms of gender diversity. You’ve probably experienced some hard knocks, or pushback, and so would you have any advice for women? Is there any advice you have for women who want to excel in the industry?

 

Joyee  For me, I was expecting to receive some pushback in the mining industry entering the work force as a petite girl, but my experiences on site really struck me. The operators I dealt with on site were mostly male and twice my size which I refer to as gentle giants. They have the warmest hearts and took me in as a family member where I learned tons about designing practical engineering solutions.  I felt very welcomed entering into the workforce and dealing with them.

 

Karsmina  For me, I would say Imperial is definitely very inclusive, very diverse, and is a leader in treating people equally. I wouldn’t say that all of my experiences were like that. Mining is definitely male dominated, so you do run into some road blocks. It is important to be firm and affirmative. Being confident when you bring ideas to the table will help you drive the messages across.

 

Is there anything else you can think of? Something practical about being in this building or on campus? Or what’s a local a local restaurant you “must” go to?

Karsmina  I love the [Lassonde] Mining Building. I spent a lot of time in the mining lounge and meeting other mining engineering students, especially the third and fourth years. They really make you feel like you’re at home. The senior year students are very helpful in giving you career advice, homework help, and even exam prep. For food choices: New Gen Sushi at Spadina and Bloor.

 

So you miss New Gen the most?

Karsmina  I miss how everything is so close. Like Harbord Street is right there with all the food selections.  Baldwin Street as well. For foodies it’s great and it’s cheap. Yesterday we went for ramen and [Joyee] was joking how both of our bills combined is going to be under 50 bucks. That’s not something you see outside of probably campus life. Another thing I miss are the hot dog vendors. They are not a common sight in Alberta. There used to be a guy across the street from the Mining Building. When we pulled all-nighters for assignments or exams, you can count on him to be out there with a heater going.  I don’t even know if he’s still there, but it’s one of the fond memories I have.

Joyee  The location of the campus, the people, the culture, the food and much more. The campus is right downtown with everything you could possibly want at your door step. The [St. George] campus houses some of the most exquisite architecture, surrounded by lush foliage and greenery, which made me fall in love with U of T at first sight.

 

By Phill Snel

This article has been edited for clarity.


Lassonde Mineral Engineering Students take gold – 4 oz of gold

Winning Lassonde Mineral Engineering Team (Zawwar Ahmed (MinE Year 3), Dalton Veintimilla (MinE Year 4), Ice Peerawattuk (MinE Year 4) and Jihad Raya (MinE PEY)) with Candace MacGibbon, CEO of INV Metals (at centre).

This weekend, Zawwar Ahmed (MinE Year 3), Ice Peerawattuk (MinE Year 4), Jihad Raya (MinE PEY) and Dalton Veintimilla (MinE Year 4) successfully defended their first place title in the Goodman Gold Challenge (GGC) in Sudbury.

The GGC is a competition at Laurentian University that invites undergraduate students to assess three gold companies as investment opportunities. In teams of four, students recommend one of the three companies to a top-tier client.

The Lassonde Mineral Engineering team won the cash equivalent of four ounces of gold for their outstanding use of their academic and practical skills at the GGC.

Congratulations from the Department of Civil & Mineral Engineering. Keep up the good work!

 


Acoustic Emission Source Parameters

SP_1

At the largest scale, fractures give rise to volcanoes and earthquakes and at engineering scales they form pathways for fluids to flow through and reduce the strength of rock. For these reasons, the study of rock fractures has been a major focus of research in the mining, petroleum and civil engineering industries for decades. To study rock fractures in detail and under controlled conditions, laboratory experiments are conducted where radiated Acoustic Emission (AE) is thought to be analogous to earthquakes.

The focus of this research is to bridge the gap between AE produced during small scale laboratory experiments and larger manmade and natural earthquakes via the absolute calibration of AE sensors. After calibration of our AE sensors, we able to estimate the size and magnitude of AE events induced during a true-triaxial deformation experiment. We found that corner frequency and moment magnitude ranged from 180 < fo < 800 kHz and -7.1 < Mw < -6.2, respectively and all source parameters appeared to obey scaling relationships derived for larger earthquakes.

Related Publications

  • Goodfellow, S.D., and R.P. Young (2014), A laboratory acoustic emission experiment under in situ conditions, Geophysical Research Letters, 41, pp. 3422 – 3430.
  • Goodfellow, S.D., M.H.B. Nasseri, and R.P. Young (2014), “Source parameters of acoustic emissions observed in laboratory and mine environments”, ARMA Conference, June 1 – 4, 2014, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA, pp 1-7.

Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical Properties of Cobourg Limestone

 

The demand for underground radioactive waste repositories makes  the study of thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) processes in rocks an increasingly important topic. In collaboration with the Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) we  conducted triaxial deformation experiments on Cobourg limestone, an argillaceous sedimentary rock found in Southern Ontario, Canada. Experiments were conducted at a constant confining pressure of 12.5 MPa where samples were axially loaded at a constant displacement rate until failure. Samples were heated in situ to 50C, 100C and 150C  to study the thermal effect on deformational response, elastic properties and transport properties.

Our preliminary results show the dependency of mechanical and transport properties to applied temperature and stresses as seen in the displayed figure. Permeability was measured at various stages during heating and deformation using the pulse-decay method. We observed that permeability decreased due to the effect of thermal and differential stresses, which caused compaction of pore spaces and weak bedding planes. Permeability increased after further compression  which led to the initiation and growth of axial cracks parallel to maximum principal stress..

Related Publications

  • Nasseri, M.H.B, S.D. Goodfellow, T.S. Wanne, and R.P. Young (2013), Coupled Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical properties of Cobourg, International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, (61), 212 – 222.
  • Nasseri, M.H.B, S.D. Goodfellow, T.S. Wanne, and R.P. Young, Thermo- Hydrmo-Mechanical properties of Lindsay limestone: A candidate for Nuclear Waste Repository in Canada, ARMA Conference, June 24 – 27, 2011, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

True-Triaxial Testing

The heart of the Rock Fracture Dynamics Facility is a technologically advanced true-triaxial computer controlled rock deformation system with integral permeability measurement and geophysical imaging capability. For the first time, it is possible to carry out multi-axis thermo-mechanical, geophysical, and hydrological measurements essentially simultaneously on rock specimens ranging from hard rock such as granite to weak rocks undergoing deformation well into the post-failure regime of brittle rocks. The deformation system simulates engineering and geophysical problems to depths of over 4000m at temperatures up to 200C, with maximum loads able to induce fracture and failure in rocks while continuously monitoring changes to the physical properties of the samples. The use of 80mm cubical samples loaded between computer controlled servo-hydraulic rams, provides the high degree of operational flexibility that is needed for the range of instrumentation used in the research, including the monitoring of permeability, seismic velocity, resistivity and acoustic emission in 3D. This allows the growth of fractures to be controlled and monitored over a range of simulated earth-like conditions.

Related Publications

  • Nasseri, M.H.B, S.D. Goodfellow, and L. Lombos, R.P. Young (2014), 3-D Transport and acoustic properties of Fountainebleau sandstone during true-triaxial deformation experiments, International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences 69, 1-18.
  • Nasseri, M.H.B, S.D. Goodfellow, R.P. Young, Investigation of permeability anisotropy and polymodal fracture pattern development using a true-triaxial geophysical imaging cell, AGU Fall Meeting, Dec 9-13, 2013, San Francisco, California, USA.
  • Goodfellow, S.D., M.H.B. Nasseri, and R.P. Young, Evaluation of Wave Propagation Properties during a True-Triaxial Rock Fracture Experiment using Acoustic Emission Frequency Characteristics, AGU Fall Meeting, Dec 9-13, 2013, San Francisco, California, USA.
  • Tabari, M.G., S.D. Goodfellow, M.H.B. Nasseri, and R.P. Young, 3D Anisotropic Velocity Tomography of a Water Saturated Rock under True-Triaxial Stress in the Laboratory, AGU Fall Meeting, Dec 9-13, 2013, San Francisco, California, USA.
  • Young R.P., M.H.B. Nasseri, and L. Lombos, Imaging the effect of the intermediate principal stress on strength, deformation and transport properties of rock using seismic methods, Ture triaxial testing of rocks, CRC Press, Taylor & Francisco Group, Balkema, 2013, 167-179.

Hydraulic Fracturing

Hydraulic fracturing is the initiation and propagation of a fracture by means of fluid pressurization. Hydraulic fracturing has grown in popularity over the past couple of decades in response to increasing public demand for energy alternatives, the discovery of large oil and gas reservoirs in North America and the growing demand for minerals.

The objective of this research is to conduct laboratory scale hydraulic fracturing experiments, which investigate  various hydraulic fracture parameters such as, fluid injection rate, fluid viscosity, stress ratio and rock microfabric. We use deformation measurements, ultrasonic velocity surveys, acoustic emission monitoring, micro computed tomography imaging and thin section analysis to study the micromechanics of hydraulic fracture initiation and propagation and quantify induced fracture geometry.

HydroFrac3

Hydraulic fracture experiments are conducted in a triaxial geophysical imaging cell (ErgoTech). Fluid is injected through a central borehole which can be sealed up to approximately 70 MPa by a multi-O-ring packer system (Designed by Laszlo Lombos). Acoustic Emission is monitored continuously by 18 piezoelectric sensors in direct contact with the rock specimen. Fluid is inject at constant flowrates up to 7.5 mL/min using a servo-controlled hydraulic pump capable of delivering a maximum pressure of 100 MPa.

Related Publications

  • Goodfellow, S.D., M.H.B. Nasseri, and R.P. Young, The influence of injection rate on Hydraulic Fracturing of Westerly granite, ARMA Conference, June 23 – 26, 2013, San Francisco, California, USA.

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